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Book-selling was her career for nearly ten years; she owned her own bookstore for three of those enjoyable years. She belongs to the Saskatchewan Romance Writers and treasures the support and friendship that group offers. Lesley-Anne is married and has one daughter. She lives on the prairies of Canada which are distant from Regency England in time and thought, but which retain an echo of Great Britain in history and tradition. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches.

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She lives on the fringes of society, satisfying her hunger at the ton parties to which she is invited and gambling to obtain money Carolina's Walking Tour. On his return from the Peninsular War, grievously wounded and troubled in spirit, Alexander Quainton On his return from the Peninsular War, grievously wounded and troubled in spirit, Alexander Quainton decides that an insouciant manner is the best way to avoid the pity he abhors.

Exercising his damaged body with daily walking excursions proves an Dangerous Relations. After Ardin Wesley's cousin Suziette is murdered, her widower, Brett, asks Ardin to help him adopt Suziette's little girl, whom he's grown to love.

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Trouble is, no one knows the identity of the child's natural father. A famous feature of the World Fair in New York in the was something called the Dynamic Maturity Pavilion — a garden with benches where those of mature years could rest. Expressions like seasoned and seasoned citizen have something of the same notions of fulfilment and maturity — with perhaps the additional associations of a tasty dish.

These have now well and truly had their day, as have expressions such as sunset years and twilight years. The geriatric hospital I worked in for some time was called Sunset Home.

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Other homes another nice euphemism around that time the s had similar names: Twilight Home, Eventide Home and so forth. But the imagery is now tired. Many substitutions involve expressions that refer to something that is conceptually linked somehow with the tabooed sense. Vagueness is what speakers seek in a euphemism, especially where face-saving is the main motivation, and often the replacements are involve a high level of abstraction.

Aged care institutions are described simply as homes, hostels, houses, cottages, villages, residences and so forth. Many of these general-for-specific euphemisms involve the sort of linguistic restraint that is usually described as understatement. The confusion arising from the negative of the contrary here mitigates the force of the utterance; it is well established in the psycholinguistic literature that multiple negatives pose difficulties for cognitive processing 5.

Some of us are not as young as we used to be — but then neither are babies.

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The greying of Australia for some time became almost a catch phrase in reference to the rising population of aging or aged Australians who remain active well past retirement. Part-for-whole euphemisms of this nature are comparatively rare; as outlined below, it is a far more usual strategy for forming dysphemisms.

This expression was enthusiastically taken up during the s and s, especially by those who were in the business of putting positive spin on aging. The expression still connotes activity, vigour, freedom, control and achievement. The problem then is how exactly to determine where middle age falls — is it 35, 40, 50, or older?

The taboo surrounding old age creates the same sort of instability something I will return to below. Expressions such as venerable and respected carry lofty associations that emphasize some of the positive aspects of the aging process — dignity of appearance, the deference that is commanded and so forth. Compare expressions such as veteran and elder statesman , that carry with them the prestige and seniority of someone who has seen long service in an occupation in the case of veteran, typically the army.

Many aged care facilities another euphemism now have lodge or manor in their titles, such as Manchester Lodge and Rosedale Manor. One sense of a lodge is that of temporary typically holiday accommodation, such as a ski lodge or hunting lodge. Of course, lodges can also refer to the accommodation in parks or estates, and, like manors the main houses or mansions on some property of significance , they have elevated associations.

Political correctness of the 80s and 90s also has provided an exuberance of such expressions.

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One practice involves shortening ; for example, the end-clipping of geriatric to produce geri. In writing, these might be fleshed out with non-lexical expressions such as asterisks or a long dash. The world of print renders something invisible with dashes, asterisks and suspension points the email subject header?


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The spoken counterparts to these symbols are noises like mhm, er-mm. In the context of aging, examples of this kind of omission are not common, although there are plenty of contexts where references to age have now become taboo and are therefore excluded.

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For example, reactions against age discrimination in the work place mean that in some countries date of birth is no longer expected in a curriculum vitae — and selection panels who request the age of a job applicant are risking charges of ageism. The expression senior citizen itself a euphemism is generally now abbreviated to senior.

In comparison to senior citizen , which has been around longer, senior retains more positive associations to do with higher rank or standing though, as discussed below, these too are waning. Certain construction types enable speakers and writers to leave out pieces of information and this can be used to great effect in creating euphemisms. However, without a standard of comparison provided, all it does is serve to blur the edges. Paradoxically, older then becomes not as old as old. You might compare the fuller figure a euphemism used in the fashion industry.

Our oranges are sweeter — sweeter than lemons, perhaps? Elder is also the comparative of old and once equivalent to older. This is included here under distortion because it involves the reconfiguration of the original expression, this time in a process akin to componential analysis. The senses of a taboo term are unpacked, each of the meaning components is listed and the resulting periphrasis functions as a euphemism, such as getting on in years.

It is this same process that turns doors into entry systems, toothbrushes into home plaque removal instruments and teachers into learning facilitators. Under cover of words we can tip toe linguistically around any sensitive topics such as old age, and the more words the better. The motivation is also often to upgrade alternative nomenclature.

Certain types of aged care facilities in the United States are now known as assisted living residences, assisted living facilities ALFs or senior congregate living communities. The secret languages described by Allan this volume show regular morpho-phonological changes of these kinds.

Backslang reverses the letters and inserts the occasional vowel to make the string pronounceable ; hence, yrev delo. This can involve a type of internal borrowing from sub-varieties, such as jargon and slang, within the same language. Learned or technical terms provide ready-made euphemisms. This sort of terminology is overwhelmingly classical in origin, drawing especially on high-bred sources such as Latin and Greek.


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  • If not directly borrowed from prestigious jargons such as Medicalese, they at least smack of a specialist language. The levity of slang expressions such as these makes the job easier to bear. There is nothing like a lexical exotic to blur unpleasant reality and foreign languages such as French and Latin have been providing English with either fig leaves or dress ups for centuries.

    The use of Latin terms provides Standard English with many euphemisms for bodily effluvia, sex and associated acts and bodily organs, and, as Allan this volume describes, until recently translations of taboo terms from exotic languages, and descriptions of taboo acts, caused an author to suddenly switch from English to Latin. In the context of aging, it figures more as the basis for the technical terms just discussed.

    But there is one clear example of a euphemism borrowed directly from Latin; namely, anno domini. Hyperbole can always be used to exaggerate the offense as in old fossil and shrivelled old git. For example, biddy, crone, granny, grimalkin, hag, harridan and witch all denote the older female with undesirable physical features or objectionable behaviour, as do expressions such as codger, coot, fogy, gaffer and geezer which depict older males in an unflattering way by ascribing aberrant behavior to them, especially the suggestion of antiquated notions i.

    Many of these started life as polite terms; e. Whereas vague general-for-specific euphemisms are commonplace, dysphemism is much more likely to employ a blunt part-for-whole strategy. Other differences between euphemism and dysphemism are predictable.

    The use of borrowed terms, circumlocution or technical jargon is usually dysphemistic when it is perceived by the audience to be befuddling gobbledygook. One is semantic pejoration. Over time, words are much more likely to take on negative overtones than they are favourable ones. Perhaps, we are inherently pessimistic. We are more likely to look for the worst in things. We scold and disapprove far more than we applaud and admire. Bad news is always more interesting than good news.

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    All this is reflected in the way words change cf. Burridge []. In this instance, euphemistic expressions become sullied by the disagreeable concepts they designate. This sort of chronic contagion relates more specifically to the low-key euphemistic expressions under sections 2. Through constant use, novel and exciting ways of saying things become everyday and mundane. Some areas of the lexicon are particularly prone to this; insults lose their wounding capacity, swearwords their pungency, slang expressions their vigour.

    With time, face-saving euphemisms lose their protective magic, and the more flamboyant or ostentatious expressions under sections 2. Allan and Burridge [ 22ff]; [ ] 8. The effect of this law is that many euphemisms become tainted over time. As the negative associations reassert themselves and undermine the euphemistic quality of the word, the next generation of speakers grows up learning the word as the direct term.